Discourse 6 (28.07.1997)
So many great people were educated in the field of sufism, literature, music, military service and politics along history in Kutahya. For example; Husain Pasha who was honoured as ‘ Defender of Danube’ after his death in Gumushashiq Zawiya.
Husaýn Pasha was a great commander who defeated Russian army of 90.000 men with 10.000-15.000 Turkish soldiers in Caucasus, Silestria and The Danube province and made Turkish Army victorious.
Hammamizade Ismail Dede, a great Ottoman composer, genius Shaykh Galib ( a great classical Ottoman poet ) and so many great people of Kutahya who were known as ‘People of Kutahya’ were guided by Ali Nutki Dede, one of the Sufi Masters of Mawlawi Convent, in the Yenikapi District of Istanbul . ( Ali Nutki Dede was an 18th Century musician. He was born in a house near Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent on 5th Moharram (= the first month of the Arabian lunar year) 1176. His father was Abu Bakr Dede from Kutahya, the Shaykh of Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent. Abu Bakr Dede’s father was a Khalwatiyya Shaykh Ahmad Effendi. Ahmad Effendi’s father was Sayyid Husain Effendi and his father was a Khalwatiyya Shaykh Sayyid Nuruddin Effendi. Ali Nutki Dede’s mother, Saida Hanim, was the daughter of a well-known musician Kutbul Nayi Osman Dede who had made his miraculous journey.
Especially Sahih Ahmad Dede, the author of ‘ Ettevarihul Mevleviyye’, had a great influence on the education and training of Ali Nutki Dede. His father died when he was fourteen and he was appointed as a Shaykh to Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent in 1775 . After working 30 years as a Sheikh-ul Islam, he died in Cemazil-evvel(=the fifth month of the Arabian lunar year) in 1249 (A.H.)/ 1804 (A.D.) at the age of 43. He was buried next to his father’s grave in Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent.
Abdulbaqi Dede was the brother of Ali Nutki Dede. He was born in a house in the neighbourhood of Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent in 1765(A.D.). He was educated by Halil Effendi, a Muftu from Milas, and learned Arabic and Persian language. He got married in the first week of Receb (= the seventh month of the lunar year) in 1794 (A.D.). He was engaged in reconciling written works in one of the flats of the convent. He was also interested in music theoretically and practically. He was the head nayzan of the convent for a while as well. He taught how to blow nay to Dede Effendi, a well-known musician .
He was appointed as a Shaykh to Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent when Ali Nutki Dede died in Cemazil-evvel( the fifth month of the Arabian lunar year) in 1804(A.D.). He gave guidance to people during 17 years. He died at five o’clock on Friday on 20th Cemazil-evvel 1820 . ‘ Baqi Dede desired divine world passionately in this life ’ was written in the epitaph displayed over his tomb .)
Ali Nutki Dede was the son of Abu Bakr Dede who went to Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent from Sekioren, a village near Kutahya. Abu Bakr Dede had another son who was called Nasir Abdulbaqi Dede. The members of the family received their early education in Kutahya. All sufi masters of Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent were from this family until the convents were closed in 1925. When the Surname Law was adopted, the family got the surname ‘ Baykara’. The last son of the family is Gavsi Baykara who is a well-known nay player and composer of today.
One day Sultan Mahmud II goes to Yenikapi Mawlawi Convent to visit Ali Nutki Dede, a member of this great family. He listens to Acem Puselik Ayin-i Sharif (=a certain air of the Oriental Music), which is composed by Ali Nutki Dede and which is in the first place among Mawlawi Rituals. He is so enchanted that he even gives money to disciples.
Ali Nutki Dede warns Sultan Mahmud II by saying,
‘My sultan, please don’t give money to disciples. We meet their needs. If you give them money, they may show tendency to the worldly things.’
Sultan Mahmud II was a Khalwatiyya Shabaniyya disciple. His Sufi Master was Geredeli Aziz who was buried in Gerede, a town of Bolu. He was also known as Shaykh Haji Halil Effendi (k.s.). One of the well-known figures who was guided by Geredeli Aziz (k.s.) was Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz(k.s.).
Shaykh Salih Effendi was a native of Kutahya. His father was Haji Halil Aga, one of the notabilities of Kutahya. He was a rich man who had a farm. Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) was a spiritual vagabond in his youth. However he was famous for his friendliness, generosity and his kindness to the poor. He was initiated into a Sufi Order in his middle age after falling in love with God.
Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) seeks a Sufi Master for a long time. He even goes to Damascus. However his heart doesn’t lean towards any of them. At last he hears that there is a great Master in Gerede. He goes from Kutahya to Gerede to visit this great Master. Then he is initiated by Geredeli Aziz Haji Effendi, one of the Great Masters of Khalwatiyya- Shabaniyya. In a short time he attains a high degree of spirituality.
He visits his Shaykh, Geredeli Aziz (k.s.) twice a year- at Festival of the Sacrifices and at Festival at the end of Ramadan. He was supported and inspired by him.Years pass so.
One night the disciples see crown of sainthood on Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz(k.s.)’s head. The background colour of khalif’s crown ( taj ) is white and the sign on it is black however the colours of Sufi Master’s crown ( taj-i sharif ) are just the opposite. The disciples who know this difference say,
‘ Effendi, our Sufi Master is in Gerede. However we see his crown on your head.’
Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) says,
‘ You will understand this tomorrow.’
He only gives a short answer. That night when the disciples asked this question Geredeli Aziz passed away. Next morning Geredeli Aziz Shaykh Haji Effendi(k.s.)’s son comes to Kutahya from Gerede. He goes to the convent of Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) and enters the presence of him. He says,
‘ Effendi, my father passed away yesterday. He said the trust (= leadership of the order) was transmitted to you.’
When Shaykh Haji Halil Effendi Aziz (k.s.) from Gerede passed away, Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) understood that the work of guidance transmitted to him. He took off the Crown(taj) of Caliphate and put on the Crown of Sainthood (taj-i sharif). The disciples understood this in the morning.
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) was a perfect man whose miracles were such apparent and who had great foresight. There were so many statesmen among his disciples. One of them was Ali Pasha from Kutahya who was an 18th century man and an Ottoman Minister of Finance.
There are some job changes in palace in Istanbul. As a result of these transfers Ali Pasha is demoted and sent to a small town near Damascus as lieutenant-governor. As if a banishment. When this is informed to him, he directly goes to Kutahya from Istanbul. He goes to the convent and enters the presence of Great Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s). Then he reports the situation.
‘ They reduced my rank and appointed me governor of a small town in Damascus. What do you say? Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.), who is so excitable, gets angry and says,
‘ It won’t be so. I appointed you governor of Damascus. Go and start it.
Ali Pasha says,
‘ All right, my master.’ He kneels at his Sufi Master’s feet and then sets out. While he is in the neighbourhood of Adana, he receives a second order from Ottoman government. The order says,
‘ There is a mistake in your appointment .You aren’t appointed governor of a small town around Damascus but you are appointed governor of Damascus.’
Then Ali Pasha says ,
‘ I was told this order before by my Master. Then I set out.’
As it is understood from the hearsay on Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.), this esteemed Sufi Master supervised his disciples closely.
The miracles, the beauties and the greatness of him can’t be expressed in words. The ones who are aware of the secret he experienced and who experience the same thing can understand him. For this reason I wrote the Nutk-i Sharif about him which was told by my master, Hodja Mustafa Effendi(k.s.), who knew his miracles well, on epitaphs and hung them on the wall of his tomb. One of the epitaphs is as follows,
The servant, Shabani Wali, was a gnostic of Allah
His honourable heart was an infinite ocean
His miracles were not told but seen by everybody
He gave inspiration to lovers, his support was great
He wished goodness in all affairs, he was such a Shaykh Salih
On the other epitaph it was written that,
O visitor! You who come and pray here
You who obey God faithfully
Don’t think you return from here in sadness and disappointment
You attain your wishes, you laugh while crying
You enter paradise and see God’s face
You drink wine of the fate from the hand of Shaykh Salih
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.), as my master says, was a great man of this country whose miracles were known, told and passed from person to person. As my master also says, Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) attained the station of Pir. He was such a perfect man that if he wished, he could have opened a Sufi branch on behalf of himself. However he didn’t want this.
One day an old woman walks up and down in front of the convent. She is thoughtful. She has only a son. His son and his friends have dinner together in one of his friends’ houses once a week.
That week it is his turn to have visitors at home but he forgets to tell this to his mother. When he wakes up in the morning, he remembers this. He calls his mother and says ,
‘ Mum, we will have some guests tonight. My friends will come. Meals should be ready in time for dinner. There should be pastry stuffed with cheese, meatballs, baklava (=sweet flaky pastry), etc.’
The woman is surprised with this unexpected news. She isn’t a rich woman so she wonders what she can do. She doesn’t want his son to feel ashamed but she hasn’t got any money. Then she goes to the convent and walks up and down. Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) who sees her anxiety and her state of thoughtfulness says,
‘ Madam, come here. Don’t embarrass your son . Find two helpers and prepare the meals until dinner time . Also warn your son not to hurry you again.’ He then gives her some money.
The woman doesn’t know what to say. She leaves there with a grateful look on her face. She immediately goes shopping and buys the ingredients. She asks some of her neighbours to help her and they get everything ready for the dinner. Thus she prevents his son from being ashamed.
Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.) has so many similar apparent miracles. Even one of his miracles is told by the old people of Kutahya as follows,
The muezzin (=one who summons to prayer from a minaret five times a day) of Saduddin Mosque was a man who had high spiritual potential. Everyday he prays to God and says ,
‘ My God, show me Hizir(Hizir Ilyas=Elijah).’
Days pass so. One day when he climbs up to the minaret to call for the morning prayer, he meets Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.) at the external gallery on the minaret. When he sees this holy person, he says,
‘ What are you doing here, Shaykh Salih Effendi?’
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) says,
‘Well, didn’t you pray a lot and wish to see Hizir?
He says, ‘Yes’.
Here I am. I am ready.
As it is understood from this anecdote, we shouldn’t think that there was only one Hizir and he lived and died. Because there is Hizriyyat ( =The people who attain the stage of Hizir).
Hizir is someone who attains Divine Wisdom. For this reason sufi masters’ attaining this stage and then passing it is a part of Sufism.
As my master, Hodja Mustafa Effendi(k.s.) says, ‘ Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz’s miracles were not told but seen by everybody ’ . Another rumour about his miracles is that,
At the time of Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) Yenimahalle ( a district where there is Zafer Mosque), was a Greek Street. There is a great fire there and all the houses burn completely. A few days later the fire extinguishes itself. Everywhere is covered with ashes. Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) visits the site of the fire with a friend who is a learned scholar. His friend says,
‘ Salih Effendi, they may be non-Moslems but they are the servants of God as well. I am so sorry to see this ruin.’ Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) suddenly stops. He stares in silence at the site of fire and then turns to his friend and says,
‘ There was a poor ecstatic dervish . Before the fire, the Greek had tortured him. They hurt that holy man . I suppose they killed him as well. I saw him in blood.’
When hodja said ‘ Greeks are servants of God as well. I feel sorry for them.’, the image of the ecstatic fellow stood in front of Shaykh Salih Effendi and said,
‘ So you didn’t feel sorry for me. Look at me. Look, how bad the Greeks treated me.’
Then Shaykh Salih Effendi(k.s.) gives the scholar that answer.
In the century which Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.) lived , there was a well-known scholar of exoteric (=ulama-i zahir) in Kutahya who was known as Dolarlizade Hadji Osman Effendi. He had great knowledge in exoteric science (=ilm-i zahir ) and even the Sheikh-ul-Islam (=the grand mufti ) consulted him.
One day while doing the second interpretation of Fatiha ( =The opening ) chapter of Qur’an, Dolarlizade Hadji Osman Effendi meets with a difficulty. As he is a well-known personality and as he doesn’t want the people say, ‘ Look! He is a great scholar but he is still going to ask a dervish’, he goes to Shaykh Salih Effendi’s convent at night not in the daytime.
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz is ready before he comes. He says,
‘ My sons, we will have a guest tonight. Go and buy these things.’
Hadji Osman Effendi comes to the convent . The disciples inform his coming. Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) stands up and welcomes Dolarlizade.
He shows him a great kindness by saying , ‘ Light diffused through our convent. You honoured us.’
Hadji Osman Effendi says,
‘My master, I have difficulty in the second esoteric interpretation of Fatiha ( =The Opening )chapter of Qur’an. You have knowledge of divine providence. Please help me. Solve my difficulty.’
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) pays him nice compliments and says,
‘O sir, Astagfirullah (=May God forgive me), I wouldn’t dare. I can not compete with you.’ Then he starts to interprete by saying, ‘ My master, Shaykh Geredeli Hadji Effendi Aziz (k.s.), said the second esoteric interpretation so.’
In fact it was his interpretation but by attributing it to his Shaykh, he showed modesty and bewared of Nafs. This is the courtesy of the Sufi Path.
After doing the second interpretation, by attributing it to his Shaykh he starts the third interpretation. When he starts the fourth interpretation of Fatiha( =The Opening ) by attributing it to his Shaykh again, Hadji Osman Effendi says,
‘That’s enough, my master. My mind can’t stand more of it.’
Then Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz (k.s.) says,
‘Sir, My master said there were seventy interpretations of this chapter made by saints.’
Another rumour about Shaykh Salih Effendi (k.s.)’s miracles is as follows,
One day a letter comes to Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz’s convent from the head of the Hazrat Uftade’s convent in Bursa. It says,
‘ My master, I heard that there were so many disciples in your convent in Kutahya. We haven’t got any here. Can you send us some?’
In reply to his letter Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz(k.s.) says to the spiritual sultan of that day,
‘My sultan, if you want a disciple there is only me but if you want a Shaykh , we can send you many.’
By saying so the sultan of the hearts mentions the disciples’ wishing to be a Sufi Master or a leader. However one should be absorbed in God, should totally consume his ego into nothingness and attain all the stages of spiritual journey to annihilate Self. And then one becomes a disciple . And when one becomes a disciple, he becomes perfect as well.
Shaykh Salih Effendi Aziz(k.s.) , a friend of God, was grown up in Kutahya and served humanity. Another link in the spiritual chain is Hazrat Gaibi Sun’ullah Effendi(k.s.) who is known as ‘ Huda Rabbim’ (=‘ Allah is my God’ ; the name of one of his books) by the Natives of Kutahya.
Gaibi Sun’ullah Effendi (k.s.) was from Kutahya. He wrote thirteen books which are better than one another. These books contain the essence of Sufism. He wrote so frankly in his books that people criticized him a lot. However for the wise these books are great masterpieces. In the following years his thirteen books will be collected in one book. This was taken by a theologist as a Master degree thesis. These are good signs. Because after giving a seventy year break to Sufism, Turkish Society is embracing its spiritual magnificence again. It should tend to lean towards Sufi studies. If the society doesn’t lean in that direction, it will become bigoted and fanatic. Islam is not a religion of fanaticism or bigotry but a religion of wisdom. Spiritual knowledge has been given in convents for thousand years.
Convents have spread our customs and manners, our culture, content of Islam, Islamic elegance and courtesy, its spiritual splendour as a last religion and the joy of Sufism . This joy caused the formation of good morals, virtue, art and culture in the society.
Today the society is fanatical and bigoted because of being lack of them. In the last years the joy of sufism has spread gradually in Anatolia. However some false masters appeared as well. But the people will judge their truthfulness. People’s judgement is notable.
Along history many great people were educated especially in the field of sufism in Turkey and this will continue. No other nation love God and be friend of him as much as Turkish nation . We are in the first place on this subject.
After mentioning these apparent truths we will go on our main subject which is the presentation of the friends of God.
As we mentioned before, Gaibi Sun’ullah Effendi is known as ‘ Huda Rabbim’ by the people of Kutahya. This is because he has a pamphlet which is called ‘ Huda Rabbim Risalesi’.
The pamplet consists of religious and theosophical basis which are richly written and said for the common people (= avam ), the cultiaveted class of people (=havas) and the wise (=ahas).
Hazrat Gaibi wanted to give an answer to the people’s accusations of his being a misbeliever and heretic by writing these wise words in the last period of his life.
If we read the whole pamplet carefully, it is seen that he clearly expresses his being ‘Ahlu- Sunna wa'l -Jama'at ’ (=Sunni Muslim ). On his being misunderstood and accused of by the public it is right to say Hazrat Gaibi expressed Sufism in other words the secret of Adamiyyat ( = nonexistance ) clearly and directly but the people couldn’t understand the truth which was expressed through his wise words. They couldn’t assimilate or tolerate his words and as a result they denied this great Saint. Even the lines below from the Nutku Sharif of Hazrat Gaibi confirm this Truth.
We risked our lives and discovered the secret
The truth which is hidden by Prophets and Saints is this
In these lines Hazrat Gaibi says, ‘ I uncovered the truth which was hidden by Prophets and Saints and I risked my life while doing this.’ It is sure that a saint who talks frankly is sharply criticised by public.
He wrote the pomphlet, ‘ Huda Rabbim’, in reply to the ones who blamed him as being a misbeliever and he put it under his pillow the night before his death.
Through this pomphlet he says, ‘ You criticised me a lot by saying such things. However I am not so. I am a Sunni Muslim ,‘Ahlu- Sunna wa'l -Jama'at ’. Through these words he gives the best answer to the ones who criticise him sharply.
The father of Hazrat Gaibi was Muftu Kara Ahmad Effendi and his grandfather was Pir Ahmad Bashir Effendi. Pir Ahmad Bashir Effendi was guided by Hazrat Ummu Sinan. At the same time he received the caliphate from the head of Hazrat Pir Shabani Wali’s Convent.
Today the Shiite own this great personality. It can be so. Because they belong to all humanity. Both the Shiite and the Sunni can own him. Didn’t everybody own Hazrat Mawlana when he died? Didn’t Jewish say , ‘ He is our Moses. Give him to us.’ ? or didn’t Christian say, ‘ He is our Jesus.Give him to us ’ ? However, Moslem said ‘ No! He is our Mawlana.’ In a Hadith Sharif Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) says,
‘ The death of a learned man is like the death of the humanity.’
Because they belong to all humanity . They are like the sun in the sky.
The sun has two main characteristics; heat and light. It illuminates through its rays and it warms through its heat. Saints are similar as well. Whichever Sufi Order they are guided in, whichever society they live in or what their religion is don’t matter, everybody prouds of them.
‘Don’t the people in Cape of Good Hope in Africa or the people in Alaska call the sun as my sun? Isn’t there only one sun that warms the whole world?’
The saints are similar as well. For this reason both the Shiite and the Sunni can say, ‘He is our saint.’
However , in truth ; Hazrat Gaibi was born in Kutahya to a learned family. He was a Sunni Saint.
‘ The characteristics of saints who are the heirs of the prophets are similar to sun. In fact it is no need to liken them. Because they are the sun itself. The light in them is science and knowledge and the heat is love.
Man should be illuminated by the knowledge of saints who are the heirs of prophets. They should enlighten their hearts through his love and they should be illuminated and filled with divine love. Because there is only knowledge and love in their shops. ’
On ‘ Marifatullah ’ (=experiential knowledge of divine reality) Hazrat Gaibi says in his Nutku Sharif,
The crown is the crown of wisdom, don’t expect another crown
Those who are full for imitation are hungry for divine wisdom
Don’t dream in a dream , don’t let it deceive you
Everything needs to be defined except God
What seems to you as universe in fact God
Sure God is unique, don’t think there are many
This world is a tree and Man is its fruit
Fruit is desired, don’t think it is tree
The interpretation of these words is to know yourself
For those who know themselves miraculous ascent becomes real
The seed of this man fruit is word
Without speech, world and Man are ruined at once
What is known God is your essence, God is the word in your essence
Who knows his essence wears the crown of lordship,Gaibi
Hazrat Gaibi started his words with the word crown and ended with it. Crown is symbolic and the one which is worn by Pirs is a symbol . It is made of cloth. If you don’t deserve it, the taj, which is made of cloth, doesn’t mean anything. If you deserve it , then whatever you put on your head is a taj. You can either put a skull-cap or an attractive Taj-i Sharif ( =Crown ) . Only if you deserve it. Yunus mentions this truth as follows,
If dervishood is only having a crown and a cloak
Then I can buy one paying 30 or 40 Liras
If one is satisfied with imitation, he sees the taj made of cloth as something to be proud of . If he doesn’t deserve it , taj is useless and it doesn’t help him to achieve something. He is cheated by the world of illusion and he fails to reach truth. However truth is not an illusion. His love is figurative at the beginning but then it turns into real love in time. Majnun is asked figuratively.
If it is asked to Majnun what love is
He says ‘Laila laila’ , then his love reaches God
Hazrat Junayd-i Baghdadi, a genius, a perfect man, a Saint, a distinguished fellow in the Islamic world and even in the world, describes love so.
In a Hadith Sharif Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) says,
‘Figurative loves are the bridges to the real love.’
He means there is a way from figurative love to real love.
‘While parents are performing their daily prayers, their child imitates them. They show sympathy to him. Is what the child does performing the daily prayer or imitating his parents? The disciple is like a child, too. At first he imitates his sufi master but at the end imitation turns into reality. Because imitation is up to a point. Then it should be assimilated.’
Even the nightingale’s cry is for a single rose
Love cries, love enchants, love sings
Look at the moths, no need to another example
For giving its life to its beloved love burns itself
Moths are small white butterflies which fly in flocks in one of the seasons. They live 24 hours. They fly towards light. Wherever they see light, they fly towards it like a cloud. The interpretation of the last line is , ‘ You don’t have to look for another thing to take an example. Look at moths. It is enough for you.’ On Sufi Path a story is told,
The master of the moths says,
‘Forty of you, go there and discover the secret of Light. ’
Forty moths go there. They circle around the lamp and collect some information about light . They come back in the afternoon and they inform their master of their return.
Their master says,
‘ Are you all here? How many of you went there? Count it.’
Moths count and say,
‘ Our master, we are 39. There is one absentee.’
Their Master asks,
‘ Why did you leave your brother? Let’s go there together and look for him.’
39 moths go there again with their master and look for the moth who didn’t come back.
Their master asks,
‘Where did you circle? ’
‘There is a lamp over there. We circled around it. ’
They surprisingly realise that the absentee went into the lamp and fell onto the burning wick and it burned and turned to ashes. When their master sees him in this position, he says,
‘He had the real news. However he died and turned to ashes.’
‘Sufi Path is a path of burning and turning to ashes. It is impossible to annihilate self without burning. We must become a ‘Nothing’.’
You better go and find the evil in you, this is a perfect manner
You better go and leave the pomp, then drink from the goblet of union
Wine of divine union can’t be hold, seen or put into goblet. This wine flows from heart to heart. This is not a wine of a wine-tavern. It is the wine of love.
‘.......their Lord shall make them drink a pure drink. ’( Time,verse 21 )
In this verse the pure drink is the wine of love which flows from the heart of a Sufi Master to the disciple. This is the spiritual ecstasy caused by Love.
You better go so you manifest in the field of nothingness
You better go so you attain a high level in the joy of union
Each Sufi Master’s definition of Sufism is correct. They are all very welcome. The difference between their words stems from their different dispositions . Because saintship consists of infinite dispositions.
‘The first syllable of Kalima-i Tawhid (=pronouncing God's unity) is ‘La’ which is a negative prefix and means non-exist. Existance is in nonexistance. When you cease to exist, the real existance occurs. You and God can not exist at the same time.’
When you say, ‘ There is no God but Allah’ you say, ‘there is no’. There is no other God but Allah. Here you put your Nafs (= Self ) in the place of God. The first syllable ‘La’ is for denying this. You deny your Nafs (= Self ) , which seems as if it is real but in fact not real , to reach the truth. When you deny your Nafs (= Self) , the real Self comes into existence.
We will put an end to the subject, which we tried to explain above, through the fine lines of Turkoman dervish great Yunus,
Don’t ask I to me , I am not I
There is an I deeper in me than I
Everybody says, ‘ I am the servant of God’ but truly being a servant of God refers to knowing God. The one who knows God has no more his own existence. He only has his name. His body becomes God’s dwelling place.
As Hazrat Niyazi says, ‘ Rituals and rites are for destroying the Self for the devoted one’. Rituals and rites which are highly praised by some people are only instruments. For the lovers and the devoted the aim of rituals and rites is to annihilate Self. However these are also up to a point. ‘ Heart should be burned continuously by thunderbolt.’ We should burn our heart constantly. The thunderbolt refers to spiritual vibration, love of God, spiritual ecstasy and fear of God.
Through the line above Hazrat Niyazi says, ‘ Let the thunderbolt burn the unreal existence in your heart. Let it cauterize it.’
Whoever wants to be wise should be ready for troubles
The mist always hangs over high mountains. Likewise the mountains , the wise always have some small troubles. Otherwise they can’t reach maturity or become perfect.
‘ If you put dough into a cold oven , can it be baked?’ You put dough and remove dough again. Oven should be hot to bake the bread. Then the bread is brought to table, eaten by people, combines blood and becomes Man , strength, cell and then recites God.’
One can not be a disciple by means of rod, gown, long rosary, hair or beard. They are related to appearance and outward appearance deceives.
Bigot, don’t care the seen , go inside, care the heart
See face to face what is written in God’s book
Hazrat Aziz Mahmud Hudai says,
Those who are outside are in difficulty
Don’t make the easy work difficult, come to the Union
One should go inside. Can the one who sees the outside of a building, even if he writes many books about it, be accepted as someone who knows the building ? He only knows the outside of the building; its outer walls and the outer adornment . However there are rooms inside the building. He isn’t aware of any of them. Likewise the building Man has outer and inner parts. The outer part is Shariat and the inner part is divine knowledge. In other words the outer part of Man should be adorned with Shariat and the inner part of him should be enlightened by truth. On this subject Hazrat Gaibi says,
Purify your body, enlighten your heart
Sure you’ll burn if you don’t burn for love
Body is cleansed through Shariat and heart is enlightened through Sufi Path. ‘Nawwara, yunawwiru, tanwiran’ means to be enlightened or to reach the truth. If neither of them exists; if he didn’t cleanse his body through Shariat or if he wasn’t enlightened through Sufi Path, it shouldn’t be forgotten that he would burn at the end. So you had better burn here for love and finish it here. In his Nutki Sharif Hazrat Gaibi mentions this truth as follows,
Let the Shariat cleanse your body
Let the Sufi Path transform your bad deeds
If you really want to see the God’s face,
Saints reached God through love
We shall return back to the beginning, to the great line of Hazrat Gaibi’s Nutki Sharif. It says,
What seems to you as universe in fact God
These words can make one crazy. What does Hazrat Gaibi mean by this line?
Sure God is unique, don’t think there are many
He says the universe; earth and heaven, the soil you walk on, the air you breathe, the flowing water, seen and unseen, known and unknown are all manifestations of God. How do we know?
‘ Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. ’ ( The Light, Verse 35 )
You say stone to stone, soil to soil, air to air or water to water in appearance. However everything is veiled in its current existence. Veiled. What sort of veil is it?
Think of a Miss Universe. Suppose her body is covered from head to food. Likewise this beautiful woman, with its mountains, stones, air, water atoms,etc. the universe is covered. If its veil is removed, you can’t look at it . Your eyes burn.
What is said in the verse, ‘ Allahu nuru’s samawati wa’l ard ’ (=Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth ) is this. Light is veiled. The light unites the light in the Perfect Man (=Adam). They joined together in Hazrat Muhammad ( pbuh ) and then the saints who came after him.
The light of Muhamadiyya (= al-nur al-muhammadiyya ), transmitted to Hazrat Adam(a.s) from the forehead.
God created the world
Adorned it with Adam( =Perfect Man)
The angles bowed down the first man
Who is given favour generously
He placed the Light of Mustafa through his forehead
He said , ‘ Know. This is the Light of my beloved’
God placed light on the forehead of Adam and said, ‘ O, Adam! The light I put on your forehead is the light of the last prophet in a chain of prophethood, ‘ Hatamu’l anbiya aleyhi akmalu’t tahaya Muhammaduni’il Mustafa. This will be transmitted to the ones that will come after you.’
It transmitted to Ibrahim and Ismail
I will talk too much if I say the rest
In this way the transmission went on continuously
Until it reached to Mustafa
Since he was a mercy unto all the worlds
The light decided to dwell in him
As a result of continuous chain of transmission, the light on the forehead of Hazrat Adam(a.s.) was seen on the forehead of Hazrat Muhammad(pbuh). The characteristics of other Prophets are all absorbed in this light and embodied in Prophet Muhammad(pbuh).
The theological meaning of ‘Hatamu’l anbiya’ (= the last link in the chain
of prophethood) is as explained above. He is the sum of all. It is like all the rivers’ meeting in the ocean.
‘ Hazrat Muhammad(pbuh) was the sum of oceans. All the perfections of Man and all divine perfections embodied in him and prophethood ended with him.’
As it is said in the Hadith , ‘ al ulamau warasatu’l anbiya ’ , all the saints that have come after him are the heirs of Hazrat Muhammad’s exoteric science (= ilm az Zahir ) and esoteric science (= ilm al Batin ).
When the word ‘ ulema ’ (=the learned) is recited with Tajwid (=to recite every letter correctly) , it is prolonged .The prolongation is equal to the length of four Alif (=the first letter of the Arabic alphabet). The Sufi interpretation of the four Alif prolongation can be expressed like that;
Each prolongation represents one of the spiritual stations (maqam).
The first prolongation: Annihilation in the Master (al-fana fi-shaykh)
The second prolongation: Annihilation in the Prophet (al-fana fi al-rasul)
The third prolongation: Annihilation in God ( fanafillah )
The fourth prolongation: Eternel existance (baqabillah)
The one who is aware of these spiritual stations and who has passed them is the heir of Prophet Muhammad (= warasatu’l nabi). He then becomes truly wise. The one who is busy with imitating or thinks he knows something because of having collected information is the slave of his Nafs.
However there are some learned people ( =ulama ) who are only the carriers of their knowledge but not transfer it to others. They may be deceived by their Nafs. The distinguished people like artists, geniuses or the rich may also be deceived by their Nafs. If knowledge, wealth, talent or position prevent someone from serving and make him proud , he is deceived by his Nafs and he is like someone who is struggling with scorpions and snakes in the marsh. If that person is aware of God or in other words knows God, then everything is in his service. For this reason it is said that ‘ Animal dies but saddle exists, man dies but his works exists’.
We shall return to our main subject and repeat the fine lines of Hazrat Gaibi again,
What seems to you as universe in fact God
Sure God is unique, don’t think there are many
Hazrat Gaibi says, ‘ Don’t think there are many Gods by looking at this world of multiplicity.’ We had better give an example to make it clear,
Suppose we are by the sea and sitting on high rocks. Wind is blowing over the sea’s surface and dragging the big waves 3- 5 metres forward. We are looking at the sea and watching the waves. The white foaming waves are crashing to the shore. Are the waves something which are sprinkled over the sea subsequently or are the waves the sea itself? The wind creates the waves. So waves and foams are bubbles which are formed by the wind blowing across the surface of the sea . Can there be any waves in the sea if the wind stops blowing? No. So the waves’ being too many don’t divide the sea into two as sea and wave. Sea always exists even if there are no waves. So wave is something which is created by the action of wind on sea.
It is wrong to think the waves are seperate from the sea considering their large number. Likewise this thinking the world seperate from God by looking at the external multiplicity is wrong. The multiplicity of being is like the waves of the sea. As Hazrat Niyazi says,
Never look at the large number of the waves, the sea is One
Whichever wave that you see there is the sea in it
In these lines Hazrat Niyazi says, ‘ Don’t let the large number of waves deceive you. Because the waves are the sea water itself ’ . This is an objective interpretation and approach. Its subjective interpretation is as follows,
Sea refers to Man’s soul and the wave is his body. When the sea of soul rises, the wave of body crashes on the shore, in other words dies.
According to this interpretation death is like a sailing-boat’s being dragged through the waves and then sinking in a storm. Great Yunus likens the body to a ship and soul to sea and says,
Shariat is a ship, Truth is its sea
Many of them never leave the ship and dive into sea
Men of Shariat claimed
However the enlightened ones weren’t convinced by the claim
In the lines above, the body refers to Shariat and the sea of Truth is the soul. Although the ship needs sea and is on the sea, it is afraid of sea. When the storm breaks, what makes it frighten happens. Since the enlightened ones know the secret of death, they aren’t afraid of it. They dive into the depths of the ocean of meanings and collect pearls of wisdom in other words they gain divine knowledge. They become immortal.
God covers everything with his power. It is impossible to be without him.
‘Can God be known? Yes. Can God be seen? Yes. Can God be loved? Yes. How? God knows God. God sees God. God loves God.Our love is God’s love.’
In Mawlud Sulayman Chalabi says,
When I fall in love with you, O the beautiful
Don’t the two world become yours, O the noble
Who falls in love with who? God falls in love with Prophet Muhammad(pbuh). He says, ‘O my dear beloved! Don’t the two world become yours when I fall in love with you?’ Think of a servant whom God loves. His name is changed by God to Lover. The lover is someone whom God loves. It is impossible for a servant to fall in love with God. The servant hasn’t got this capacity, this power. Doesn’t servanthood refer to being completely selfless? What exists is God’s own existence. As a Perfect Man says,
At first the beloved falls in love, then the lover
Think of the candle, at first it burned, then it burned the moth
Love is from the old to the young that is from God to his servants. For example; It is two o’clock in the evening. Everywhere is pitch dark. Even the moon isn’t in the sky. You can’t see one metre away. Then dawn breaks over the eastern horizon and light dispels the darkness of the night. Mountains, stones, buildings etc. all become visible. You raise your face to the sky. You see the sun. What do you see the sun with ?You see the sun with the sunlight. How can you see it with your eyes? You have eyes at night, too. So why can’t you see? Eyes are the organs of sight but you need another thing to see and this is light. Light belongs to the Sun. So you can see the Sun through sunlight. Likewise this, you love God through God. God loves himself.
Everything , every single atom of existence in the universe, is the proof of God’s unity.Man is the sum of everything. God’s greatest monument is Man. Man is the greatest of allexistence (=Hazratul Insan). Because the image of Man is the image of All merciful God. A
Qudsi Hadith says,
‘God created Adam in his own image.’
Here the word ‘create ’ refers to manifest. God says, ‘I manifested myself’.