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The Holy Silsila  of the Khalwatiyya Order

 

 

The Holy Silsila of Khalwatiyya from the founder of Order, Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umaru’l  Khalwati,  to Hazrat Muhammad, sultan of  saintship  and the last link in the chain of prophethood , is as follows;

 

1. Sayyidul awwalin wal ahirin    Muhammad Mustafa (p.b.u.h)

2. Abu’l  Hasanayn  Imam Ali al-Murtaza (k.v. and r.a.)

3. Sayyidut Tabiin Abu Said Hasan b. Yasar al-Basri

4. Ash Shaykhul  Lamii Habib al-Ajami

5. Ash Shaykhul   Kabr Abu Sulayman Dawud b. Nasir at-Tai

6. Ash Shaykhul  Fahin Abu’l  Mahfuz  Maruf  Ali al-Karhi  b.Fayruz

7. Ash Shaykhul  Karim Abu’l Hasan Sirri’s Sakati b.Muglas

8. Sayyidut Ta’ifah Sufiyya Abu’l Qassim Junaid b.Muhammad al-Baghdadi                                       

9. Ash  Shaykh  Abu Ali Ahmad  Mimshad ad-Dinawardi

10. Abu  Abdu-lah  Muhammad  Dinawari

11. Muhammad  Amwayh b.Abdu-lah  al-Bakri

12. Ash  Shaykh  Wajihuddin

13. Ash  Shaykh  Umar al-Bakr

14. Ash Shaykh  Abu’n  Najib  Ziyauddin  Abd al-Qadir  al-Bakri as-Suhrawardi

15. Pir Abu Rashid Qutbuddin (The Founder of the Abhariyya Order)

16. Ash  Shaykh  Ruknuddin Muhammad Nahhas al-Bukhari

17. Ash  Shaykh  Shabuddin Muhammad at-Tabrizi

18. Ash  Shaykh  As Sayyid Jamaluddin-i  Shirazi

19. Pir Ibrahim Zahid  Jilani (The founder of the Zahidiyya-i Khalwati Order)

20. Ash  Shaykh   Karimuddin  Ahi Muhammad b. Nour al-Khalwati

21. Ash  Shaykh  Pir Abu Abdu-lah Sirajuddin  Umar b.ash Shaykh  Akmaluddin al Jilani  al-Lahji Khalwati

           

Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umar was born in Lahcan, a town of  Geylan. After having  been  grown up there, he went to live with his uncle Ahi Muhammad bin Nour al Khalwati  in Harezm. After  having been initiated by him, he started to journey towards God (= Sayr wa Suluq ) and became one of his distinguished  khalifs. After his uncle and Shaykh Hazrat Ahi Muhammad Nouru’l Khalwati’s  passing away in 1317, he attained the degree  of guidance  (= maqam al-irshad ) . Because of his  inborn talent and high degree of spirituality he became the founder and Pir of Khalwatiyya Order. After some time, he went to Hoy, a town near Tabriz and then he went to Egypt and also Hejaz to perform Haj. And finally at the invitation of Sultan Uveys, he went to Herat. It is rumoured that in 1349 or 1397,  he passed away.

 

The deceased, Sadıq Vicdani , explains this as follows,

 

‘One day Hazrat Pir Omaru’l Khalwati  sees an empty tree-trunk in a lonely place and with intention of seclusion and right before the people’s eyes he disappears.  Because of their love for  their Shaykh, his lovers, friends and disciples search for him for a long time and find him in the empty trunk’. Sadıq Vicdani also explains  where the name  of Khalwati Order  comes  from as follows,

 

‘It comes from the forty arbains that he practised in the plain tree and  he was the khalif of his esteemed uncle Ahi Muhammad bin Nouru’l Khalwati who  is addicted to   religious seclusion ( =Khalwat dhkir ) and therefore got the title ‘ Khalwati ’ and after his passing away he took his place and possibly took his title.’

 

Muhammad Ihsan Oguz ( k.s.) writes the story of plane-tree mentioned above in his book , ‘Hazrat  Shabani Wali and Mustafa Charqashi ’.

 

‘His disciples and friends find Hz. Pir who is in seclusion in the empty trunk and after requesting and even begging they make him stop practising seclusion. While they are leaving there , they see the plane-tree’s walking behind  Hazrat obeying God’s will. Then Hazrat Pir asks the plane-tree, ‘ Why are you exposing my secret? I have given you pleasure and honour by praying to God  for a  long time. Isn’t that enough? He ordered the tree to stay its proper place. The plain-tree goes back its place through Divine favour.

 

The reasons why Pir Omaru’l Khalwati was given the  name and attribute of Khalwati are; his  practicing 40 arbains (=seclusion) to one another ,  the plane-tree’s  walking behind  him and  his  love of  khalwat dhkir (=remembrance of Allah ). It is also said that it is because he was the complete and perfect khalif of his uncle and Shaykh Hazrat Ahi Muhammad Nour’ul Khalwati and  for this reason he inherited his title Khalwatiyya .

 

In his book ,‘ Samaratu’l Fuad ’,  Sari Abdullah Effendi  says, ‘ The first syllable of Khalwatiyya in Arabic which is ‘ ha’  indicates  cleansing heart from all wordly things, the second syllable ‘ lam ’ indicates  the pleasure of dhkir, ‘ vav’ indicates  taking care of inner and outer and  keeping one’s word, ‘ te’ represents  self-possession , ‘ ye’ represents goodness after  evil  and ‘ he’ represents witnessing .’

 

Another rumour about Hazrat Pir Omaru’l Khalwati (k.s.) is his great capability for Holy War , his capacity to worship and his  pure piety (=takva) and his practising  forty arbains and spending 1600 days  in seclusion. Another great Pir who came after him is, Hazrat Sayyid Yahya-i Shirvani. This exalted person was one of the grandsons of Hazrat Sayyid Imam Musa Kazim. He was born in Shumahi, the centre of Shirvan. He was inspired by Hazrat Shaykh Sadruddin Hitawi. He attained the degree of Caliphate . He was honoured by being the son-in-law of his Shaykh. He moved from Shumahi to Baqi and lived and guided  his followers there till the end of his life.

 

Today’s inspiration and influence of Khalwatiyya Order, where forty founders of Khalwatiyya branches guided, was achieved by Hazrat Shirvani’s sending many khalifs to different parts of Islamic world. It is said that he guided one thousand khalifs in his circle of instruction  and enlightenment. The names of some of the greatest  khalifs  are as follows ;

           

1. Ash Shaykh Dede Umar Rushani

2. Ash Shaykh Ali Alaaddin

3. Ash Shaykh Pir Shukrullah al Ansari

4. Ash Shaykh Habib Karamani

5. Ash Shaykh Muhammad Bahauddin al Arzinjani

 

Hazrat Shirvani’s books on Sufism   include; Shifau’l Asrar, Asraru’l Vahy, Maratib-i Ashrarul Kalb, Asraru’l Vuzu , Rumuzu’l Irshadat, Manazilu’l Arifin, Sharh-i Asma-i Sab’a, Sharh-i Sualat-ı Gulshan-i Raz, Atvaru’l Kalb, Asraru’l Talibin. It is said that among these books ‘ Asraru’l Talibin ’ which consists of 24 parts ,which is equal to number of letters in kalima-i tavhid , is one of the important reference books for disciples.

 

There is another book written by Hazrat Shirvani, which is not mentioned above. This book is ‘ Vird-i Sattar’ which is highly valued and cared in all Khalwatiyya branches and which is accepted as the summary of 104 books and which is read during dhkir. This book is also known as ‘ Vird-i Yahya’  or   ‘ Avrad-ı Sharif ’ .

 

May God be pleased with Prophet Muhammad, his four khalifs- Hazrat Hassan and Husayn ( r.a.) , Hazrat Abbas and Hazma-, the people in Medina and the ones who follow them for  this precious work. Islamic world will remember these holy, esteemed,  perfect people with gratitude and speak well of them.

‘Ve neşhedü enlâ ilahe illâllahu vahdehulâ şerîkeleh ilâhen âdilen cebbâra (c.c.) ve meliken kâdiren kahhârâ lizzünûbi gaffara veli'l uyûbî settârâ ve neşhedü enne seyyidenâ Muhammeden 'abduhü'l Mustafa (s.a.v.) ve Resûlühu'l müctebâ (s.a.v.) ve emînühu'l muktedâ (s.a.v) şemsü'd duhâ (s.a.v.) bedrü'd dücâ (s.a.v.) nûru'l verâ (s.a.v.) sâhibü kâbe kavseyni ev ednâ (s.a.v.) Resûlü's sakaleyn (s.a.v.) ve nebiyyü'l haremeyn (s.a.v.) ve îmâmü'l kıbleteyn (s.a.v.) ve ceddü's sibtayn (s.a.v) ve şefıû menfı'd dâreyn (s.a.v.) Resûlen (s.a.v.) mekkiyyen (s.a.v.) medeniyyen (s.a.v.) hâşimiyyen (s.a.v.) kureyşiyyen (s.a.v.) ebtahiyyen (s.a.v.) kerûbiyyen (s.a.v.) rûhiyyen (s.a.v.) rûhaniyyen (s.a.v.) takıyyen (s.a.v.) nakıyyen (s.a.v.) nebiyyen (s.a.v.) kevkeben (s.a.v.) dürriyyen (s.a.v.) şemsen (s.a.v.) mudiyyen (s.a.v.) kameren (s.a.v) nûriyyen (s.a.v) nûraniyyen (s.a.v.) beşîren (s.a.v.) neziren (s.a.v.) sirâcen (s.a.v.) müniren sallallahu Teâlâ aleyhi ve âlâ âlihi ve evlâdihi ve ezvâcihi ve etbaî ve hulefâihi'r raşidîne'l mürşidiyne'l mehdiyyine min ba'dihi husûsen ale'ş şeyhi'ş şefîk kâtili'z zındîk ve fi'r gâri'r refik el mülakkabi bi'l atık el îmâmü ala't tahkik emîri'l mü'mînine seyyidenâ Ebî Bekrini's sıddîk (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l vehhâb ilâ emiri'l evvâb zeyni'l ashâbi mücâviri'l mescidi ve'l mihrâb en nâtîku bi's sevâb el mezkûru fi'l kitâb emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ Ömer ibni'l hattâb (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l mennân ilâ emiri'l emân habîbi'r rahman câmii'l Kur'ân sâhibi'l hayâ'i ve'l îmân eş şehîdi fi hâli tilâveti'l Kur'ân emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ Osman ibni affan (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l veliyyi ilâ emiri'l vasiyyi ibni ammi'n nebiyyi kâlii'l Bâbi'l Hayberî zevci Fâtımate'z Zehriyyi vârisü'l ulûmi'n nebeviyyi emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ aliyyinirradiyyinis'sakiyyil ve fiyyi (r.a.) kerremallahüvech sümme's selâm alâ'l îmâmeyni'l hümâmeyni's seideyni'ş şehîdeyni'l mazlûmeyni'l makbûleyni'ş şemseyni'l kamereyni'l bedreyn el hasîbeyni'n nesibeyn bi'l kadâi'r radiyeyni ve ale'l belâi's sâbireyn emîri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ ebî Muhammedi'l Hâsan ve ebî 'abdillahî Hüseynî (radıyalaUahu Teâlâ anhümâ) ve âlâ ammeyhi'l kerîmeni'ş şücâayni'l muazzemeyni'l muhteremeyn el Hamzate ve'l Abbâs ve âlâ cemîi'l muhâciriyne ve'l ensâr ve't tâbiiyne'l ahyâr ve'l ebrâr (rıdvânullahi Teâlâ aleynâ ve aleyhim) ecmaîne ve selleme teslîmen ve azzeme ta'zîmen ebeden dâimen hamden kesirân kesirân ilâ yevmi'l haşrî ve'l karâr.’

Khalwatiyya Order which was founded on Islamic law (=Shariat) by Hazrat Umaru’l Khalwati and which was conformed to the requirements of time and spread by second Pir Hazrat Sayyid Yahya-i  Shirvani was divided into four main branches after his  passing away:

 

1-Rushaniyya: It was founded by Dede Umar Rushani from Aydın who  passed away  in 1528.

 

The two khalifs of Hazrat Dede Umar Rushani , Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdurrahman Muhammad Demirtash and Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ibrahim Gulshani, who were trained and instructed under his supervision,  founded Demirtashiyya and Gulshaniyya branches of Khalwatiyya.

 

Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Sezai Effendi from Gulshaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya founded Sezaiyya branch of Khalwatiyya (= Sezaiyya al-Khalwatiyya ) and Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Khalati Effendi founded Khalatiyya branch of Khalwatiyya.

 

2- Jamaliyya: It was founded by Hazrat Jamaluddin Khalwati from Amasya who was supposed to pass away in 1493 or 1506. This perfected being was  the master of Kanuni Sultan Sulayman and was also known as Chalabi Khalif or  Aksarayi.

 

Ash Shaykh Hazrat Yusuf Sunbul Sinan from Jamaliyya branch of Khalwatiyya founded Sunbuliyya branch of Khalwatiyya . Shabaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya was founded by the knower of God (=arif al-billah ), Ash Shaykh Shabani Wali. Assaliyya branch was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad al Hariri al Assali. Karabashiyya branch of Khalwatiyya Shabaniyya was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ali Alaaddin Effendi who was also known as Karabash-ı Wali. Nasuhiyya branch of Khalwatiyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Nasuhi Muhammad al Khalwati and Bakriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Shamsuddin Mustafa al Bakri derived from this branch. Charkashiyya branch of Khalwatiyya which was founded by Hazrat al Haji Mustafa Effendi  derived from Nasuhiyya branch and two sub-branches which were Khaliliyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Haji Halil Effendi  and Ibrahimiyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Kushadali Ibrahim Effendi  derived from this branch.

 

Kamaliyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Mehmet Kamaluddin al Bakri from Bakriyya branch of Khalwatiyya, Hafniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Shamsuddin Muhammad b. Salim al Hafni and Tijaniyya  branch which  derived from Hafniyya branch and was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad at Tijani. Semaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Muhammad b. Abdulkarim al Madani as Samani, Favziyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Fayzuddin Husayin as Samani , Dardariyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Shihabuddin Ahmad ad Dardari and from this branch Sawiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Ahmad as Sawi derived.

 

3- Ahmadiyya: It was founded by Shaykh Hazrat Ahmad Shamsuddin who passed away  in 1509.

 

Ramazaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ramazanuddin Mahfi Effendi, Sinaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ibrahim Ummi Sinan Effendi, Oshaqiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Husamaddin al Buhari al Oshaqi, Misriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Niyazi Muhammad al Misri  derived from Ahmadiyya branch of Khalwatiyya . Cihangiriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Burhanaddin Effendi, Buhuriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh  Hazrat Muhammad al Buhuri, Raufiyya branch which was attributed toAsh Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad Raufiyya and Jarrahiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Nuraddin Muhammad al Jarrahi and Khayatiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Mehmed Khayati Effendi   all derived from Ramazaniyya branch of  Khalwatiyya.

 

Muslihiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Mustafa Muslihiddin Effendi derived from Sinaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya and from this branch Zahriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad Zahri Effendi derived.

 

4- Shamsuddin-i Sivasiyya: This branch  derived from Ahmadiyya branch. It was founded by Hazrat Shamsuddin Ahmad Sivasi on behalf of himself and it is known as Sivasiyya branch of Khalwatiyya.

 

The work of spreading the Order by  God’s help and grace, by the spiritual support of our holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad, by the support of Khalwatiyya Shaykhs and by sending khalifs to surroundings especially by the endeavour of Hazrat Yahya-i Shirvani achieved its goal and Khalwatiyya Order was divided into four main branches- Rushaniyya, Jamaliyya, Asaliyya and Bahshiyya- which were mentioned above and by the derivation of many  other branches whose number reached up  to forty . Khalwatiyya Order  worked as a factory.

 

The silsila of Khalwatiyya after Ash Shaykh Pir Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umaru’l Khalwati is as follows;

 

22. Ash  Shaykh  ahi Amram Khalwati

23. Ash  Shaykh  Hadji  Izzaddin Khalwati

24. Ash  Shaykh  Sadraddin Hitawi

25. Pir-i  Sani ash Shaykh  Yahya-yi Shirwani

26. Ash  Shaykh  Pir Muhammad Arzinjani

27. Ash  Shaykh  Jamal al-Khalwati

27.1 Ash Shaykh Zaynuddin Yusuf Sunbul Sinan ( Sunbuliyya)

27.2 Ash Shaykh Pir Shabani Wali ( Shabaniyya)

27.3 Ash Shaykh Ahmad bin Ali al Assali ( Assaliyya)

27.4 Ash Shaykh Muhammad bin Muhammad al Bahshi ( Bahshiyya)

28. Ash  Shaykh  Hayraddin-i Toqadi

29. Ash  Shaykh  Pir Hazrat Shabani Wali

 

Jamaliyya branch, which derives its name from Jamal Khalwati, has the highest number of sub-branches in Khalwatiyya. At first this branch is divided into four sub-branches:

 

1- Sunbuliyya: It was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat Zaynuddin Yusuf Sunbul Sinan.

2- Shabaniyya: It was founded by Ash Shaykh Pir Shaban-i Wali who passed away in Qastamoni in 1568.

 

3- Asaliyya: It was founded by Hazrat Ahmad bin Ali al Assali who passed away in 1638.

 

4- Bahshiyya: It was founded by Hazrat Muhammad bin Muhammad al Bahshi who passed away in 1689.

 

Within these four branches Sunbuliyya, Assaliyya and Bahshiyya remained the same. However Shabaniyya  developed and  spread  and divided into sub-branches.