The Holy Silsila of the Khalwatiyya Order
The Holy Silsila of Khalwatiyya from the founder of Order, Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umarul Khalwati, to Hazrat Muhammad, sultan of saintship and the last link in the chain of prophethood , is as follows;
1. Sayyidul awwalin wal ahirin Muhammad Mustafa (p.b.u.h)
2. Abul Hasanayn Imam Ali al-Murtaza (k.v. and r.a.)
3. Sayyidut Tabiin Abu Said Hasan b. Yasar al-Basri
4. Ash Shaykhul Lamii Habib al-Ajami
5. Ash Shaykhul Kabr Abu Sulayman Dawud b. Nasir at-Tai
6. Ash Shaykhul Fahin Abul Mahfuz Maruf Ali al-Karhi b.Fayruz
7. Ash Shaykhul Karim Abul Hasan Sirris Sakati b.Muglas
8. Sayyidut Taifah Sufiyya Abul Qassim Junaid b.Muhammad al-Baghdadi
9. Ash Shaykh Abu Ali Ahmad Mimshad ad-Dinawardi
10. Abu Abdu-lah Muhammad Dinawari
11. Muhammad Amwayh b.Abdu-lah al-Bakri
12. Ash Shaykh Wajihuddin
13. Ash Shaykh Umar al-Bakr
14. Ash Shaykh Abun Najib Ziyauddin Abd al-Qadir al-Bakri as-Suhrawardi
15. Pir Abu Rashid Qutbuddin (The Founder of the Abhariyya Order)
16. Ash Shaykh Ruknuddin Muhammad Nahhas al-Bukhari
17. Ash Shaykh Shabuddin Muhammad at-Tabrizi
18. Ash Shaykh As Sayyid Jamaluddin-i Shirazi
19. Pir Ibrahim Zahid Jilani (The founder of the Zahidiyya-i Khalwati Order)
20. Ash Shaykh Karimuddin Ahi Muhammad b. Nour al-Khalwati
21. Ash Shaykh Pir Abu Abdu-lah Sirajuddin Umar b.ash Shaykh Akmaluddin al Jilani al-Lahji Khalwati
Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umar was born in Lahcan, a town of Geylan. After having been grown up there, he went to live with his uncle Ahi Muhammad bin Nour al Khalwati in Harezm. After having been initiated by him, he started to journey towards God (= Sayr wa Suluq ) and became one of his distinguished khalifs. After his uncle and Shaykh Hazrat Ahi Muhammad Nourul Khalwatis passing away in 1317, he attained the degree of guidance (= maqam al-irshad ) . Because of his inborn talent and high degree of spirituality he became the founder and Pir of Khalwatiyya Order. After some time, he went to Hoy, a town near Tabriz and then he went to Egypt and also Hejaz to perform Haj. And finally at the invitation of Sultan Uveys, he went to Herat. It is rumoured that in 1349 or 1397, he passed away.
The deceased, Sadıq Vicdani , explains this as follows,
One day Hazrat Pir Omarul Khalwati sees an empty tree-trunk in a lonely place and with intention of seclusion and right before the peoples eyes he disappears. Because of their love for their Shaykh, his lovers, friends and disciples search for him for a long time and find him in the empty trunk. Sadıq Vicdani also explains where the name of Khalwati Order comes from as follows,
It comes from the forty arbains that he practised in the plain tree and he was the khalif of his esteemed uncle Ahi Muhammad bin Nourul Khalwati who is addicted to religious seclusion ( =Khalwat dhkir ) and therefore got the title Khalwati and after his passing away he took his place and possibly took his title.
Muhammad Ihsan Oguz ( k.s.) writes the story of plane-tree mentioned above in his book , Hazrat Shabani Wali and Mustafa Charqashi .
His disciples and friends find Hz. Pir who is in seclusion in the empty trunk and after requesting and even begging they make him stop practising seclusion. While they are leaving there , they see the plane-trees walking behind Hazrat obeying Gods will. Then Hazrat Pir asks the plane-tree, Why are you exposing my secret? I have given you pleasure and honour by praying to God for a long time. Isnt that enough? He ordered the tree to stay its proper place. The plain-tree goes back its place through Divine favour.
The reasons why Pir Omarul Khalwati was given the name and attribute of Khalwati are; his practicing 40 arbains (=seclusion) to one another , the plane-trees walking behind him and his love of khalwat dhkir (=remembrance of Allah ). It is also said that it is because he was the complete and perfect khalif of his uncle and Shaykh Hazrat Ahi Muhammad Nourul Khalwati and for this reason he inherited his title Khalwatiyya .
In his book , Samaratul Fuad , Sari Abdullah Effendi says, The first syllable of Khalwatiyya in Arabic which is ha indicates cleansing heart from all wordly things, the second syllable lam indicates the pleasure of dhkir, vav indicates taking care of inner and outer and keeping ones word, te represents self-possession , ye represents goodness after evil and he represents witnessing .
Another rumour about Hazrat Pir Omarul Khalwati (k.s.) is his great capability for Holy War , his capacity to worship and his pure piety (=takva) and his practising forty arbains and spending 1600 days in seclusion. Another great Pir who came after him is, Hazrat Sayyid Yahya-i Shirvani. This exalted person was one of the grandsons of Hazrat Sayyid Imam Musa Kazim. He was born in Shumahi, the centre of Shirvan. He was inspired by Hazrat Shaykh Sadruddin Hitawi. He attained the degree of Caliphate . He was honoured by being the son-in-law of his Shaykh. He moved from Shumahi to Baqi and lived and guided his followers there till the end of his life.
Todays inspiration and influence of Khalwatiyya Order, where forty founders of Khalwatiyya branches guided, was achieved by Hazrat Shirvanis sending many khalifs to different parts of Islamic world. It is said that he guided one thousand khalifs in his circle of instruction and enlightenment. The names of some of the greatest khalifs are as follows ;
1. Ash Shaykh Dede Umar Rushani
2. Ash Shaykh Ali Alaaddin
3. Ash Shaykh Pir Shukrullah al Ansari
4. Ash Shaykh Habib Karamani
5. Ash Shaykh Muhammad Bahauddin al Arzinjani
Hazrat Shirvanis books on Sufism include; Shifaul Asrar, Asrarul Vahy, Maratib-i Ashrarul Kalb, Asrarul Vuzu , Rumuzul Irshadat, Manazilul Arifin, Sharh-i Asma-i Saba, Sharh-i Sualat-ı Gulshan-i Raz, Atvarul Kalb, Asrarul Talibin. It is said that among these books Asrarul Talibin which consists of 24 parts ,which is equal to number of letters in kalima-i tavhid , is one of the important reference books for disciples.
There is another book written by Hazrat Shirvani, which is not mentioned above. This book is Vird-i Sattar which is highly valued and cared in all Khalwatiyya branches and which is accepted as the summary of 104 books and which is read during dhkir. This book is also known as Vird-i Yahya or Avrad-ı Sharif .
May God be pleased with Prophet Muhammad, his four khalifs- Hazrat Hassan and Husayn ( r.a.) , Hazrat Abbas and Hazma-, the people in Medina and the ones who follow them for this precious work. Islamic world will remember these holy, esteemed, perfect people with gratitude and speak well of them.
Ve neşhedü enlâ ilahe illâllahu vahdehulâ şerîkeleh ilâhen âdilen cebbâra (c.c.) ve meliken kâdiren kahhârâ lizzünûbi gaffara veli'l uyûbî settârâ ve neşhedü enne seyyidenâ Muhammeden 'abduhü'l Mustafa (s.a.v.) ve Resûlühu'l müctebâ (s.a.v.) ve emînühu'l muktedâ (s.a.v) şemsü'd duhâ (s.a.v.) bedrü'd dücâ (s.a.v.) nûru'l verâ (s.a.v.) sâhibü kâbe kavseyni ev ednâ (s.a.v.) Resûlü's sakaleyn (s.a.v.) ve nebiyyü'l haremeyn (s.a.v.) ve îmâmü'l kıbleteyn (s.a.v.) ve ceddü's sibtayn (s.a.v) ve şefıû menfı'd dâreyn (s.a.v.) Resûlen (s.a.v.) mekkiyyen (s.a.v.) medeniyyen (s.a.v.) hâşimiyyen (s.a.v.) kureyşiyyen (s.a.v.) ebtahiyyen (s.a.v.) kerûbiyyen (s.a.v.) rûhiyyen (s.a.v.) rûhaniyyen (s.a.v.) takıyyen (s.a.v.) nakıyyen (s.a.v.) nebiyyen (s.a.v.) kevkeben (s.a.v.) dürriyyen (s.a.v.) şemsen (s.a.v.) mudiyyen (s.a.v.) kameren (s.a.v) nûriyyen (s.a.v) nûraniyyen (s.a.v.) beşîren (s.a.v.) neziren (s.a.v.) sirâcen (s.a.v.) müniren sallallahu Teâlâ aleyhi ve âlâ âlihi ve evlâdihi ve ezvâcihi ve etbaî ve hulefâihi'r raşidîne'l mürşidiyne'l mehdiyyine min ba'dihi husûsen ale'ş şeyhi'ş şefîk kâtili'z zındîk ve fi'r gâri'r refik el mülakkabi bi'l atık el îmâmü ala't tahkik emîri'l mü'mînine seyyidenâ Ebî Bekrini's sıddîk (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l vehhâb ilâ emiri'l evvâb zeyni'l ashâbi mücâviri'l mescidi ve'l mihrâb en nâtîku bi's sevâb el mezkûru fi'l kitâb emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ Ömer ibni'l hattâb (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l mennân ilâ emiri'l emân habîbi'r rahman câmii'l Kur'ân sâhibi'l hayâ'i ve'l îmân eş şehîdi fi hâli tilâveti'l Kur'ân emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ Osman ibni affan (r.a.) sümme's selâm mine'l meliki'l veliyyi ilâ emiri'l vasiyyi ibni ammi'n nebiyyi kâlii'l Bâbi'l Hayberî zevci Fâtımate'z Zehriyyi vârisü'l ulûmi'n nebeviyyi emiri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ aliyyinirradiyyinis'sakiyyil ve fiyyi (r.a.) kerremallahüvech sümme's selâm alâ'l îmâmeyni'l hümâmeyni's seideyni'ş şehîdeyni'l mazlûmeyni'l makbûleyni'ş şemseyni'l kamereyni'l bedreyn el hasîbeyni'n nesibeyn bi'l kadâi'r radiyeyni ve ale'l belâi's sâbireyn emîri'l mü'minîn seyyidenâ ebî Muhammedi'l Hâsan ve ebî 'abdillahî Hüseynî (radıyalaUahu Teâlâ anhümâ) ve âlâ ammeyhi'l kerîmeni'ş şücâayni'l muazzemeyni'l muhteremeyn el Hamzate ve'l Abbâs ve âlâ cemîi'l muhâciriyne ve'l ensâr ve't tâbiiyne'l ahyâr ve'l ebrâr (rıdvânullahi Teâlâ aleynâ ve aleyhim) ecmaîne ve selleme teslîmen ve azzeme ta'zîmen ebeden dâimen hamden kesirân kesirân ilâ yevmi'l haşrî ve'l karâr.
Khalwatiyya Order which was founded on Islamic law (=Shariat) by Hazrat Umarul Khalwati and which was conformed to the requirements of time and spread by second Pir Hazrat Sayyid Yahya-i Shirvani was divided into four main branches after his passing away:
1-Rushaniyya: It was founded by Dede Umar Rushani from Aydın who passed away in 1528.
The two khalifs of Hazrat Dede Umar Rushani , Ash Shaykh Hazrat Abu Abdurrahman Muhammad Demirtash and Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ibrahim Gulshani, who were trained and instructed under his supervision, founded Demirtashiyya and Gulshaniyya branches of Khalwatiyya.
Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Sezai Effendi from Gulshaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya founded Sezaiyya branch of Khalwatiyya (= Sezaiyya al-Khalwatiyya ) and Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Khalati Effendi founded Khalatiyya branch of Khalwatiyya.
2- Jamaliyya: It was founded by Hazrat Jamaluddin Khalwati from Amasya who was supposed to pass away in 1493 or 1506. This perfected being was the master of Kanuni Sultan Sulayman and was also known as Chalabi Khalif or Aksarayi.
Ash Shaykh Hazrat Yusuf Sunbul Sinan from Jamaliyya branch of Khalwatiyya founded Sunbuliyya branch of Khalwatiyya . Shabaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya was founded by the knower of God (=arif al-billah ), Ash Shaykh Shabani Wali. Assaliyya branch was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad al Hariri al Assali. Karabashiyya branch of Khalwatiyya Shabaniyya was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ali Alaaddin Effendi who was also known as Karabash-ı Wali. Nasuhiyya branch of Khalwatiyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Nasuhi Muhammad al Khalwati and Bakriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Shamsuddin Mustafa al Bakri derived from this branch. Charkashiyya branch of Khalwatiyya which was founded by Hazrat al Haji Mustafa Effendi derived from Nasuhiyya branch and two sub-branches which were Khaliliyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Haji Halil Effendi and Ibrahimiyya which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Kushadali Ibrahim Effendi derived from this branch.
Kamaliyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Mehmet Kamaluddin al Bakri from Bakriyya branch of Khalwatiyya, Hafniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Shamsuddin Muhammad b. Salim al Hafni and Tijaniyya branch which derived from Hafniyya branch and was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad at Tijani. Semaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Muhammad b. Abdulkarim al Madani as Samani, Favziyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Fayzuddin Husayin as Samani , Dardariyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Shihabuddin Ahmad ad Dardari and from this branch Sawiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Sayyid Ahmad as Sawi derived.
3- Ahmadiyya: It was founded by Shaykh Hazrat Ahmad Shamsuddin who passed away in 1509.
Ramazaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ramazanuddin Mahfi Effendi, Sinaniyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Ibrahim Ummi Sinan Effendi, Oshaqiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Husamaddin al Buhari al Oshaqi, Misriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Niyazi Muhammad al Misri derived from Ahmadiyya branch of Khalwatiyya . Cihangiriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Hassan Burhanaddin Effendi, Buhuriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Muhammad al Buhuri, Raufiyya branch which was attributed toAsh Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad Raufiyya and Jarrahiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Nuraddin Muhammad al Jarrahi and Khayatiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Mehmed Khayati Effendi all derived from Ramazaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya.
Muslihiyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat Mustafa Muslihiddin Effendi derived from Sinaniyya branch of Khalwatiyya and from this branch Zahriyya branch which was attributed to Ash Shaykh Hazrat as Sayyid Ahmad Zahri Effendi derived.
4- Shamsuddin-i Sivasiyya: This branch derived from Ahmadiyya branch. It was founded by Hazrat Shamsuddin Ahmad Sivasi on behalf of himself and it is known as Sivasiyya branch of Khalwatiyya.
The work of spreading the Order by Gods help and grace, by the spiritual support of our holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad, by the support of Khalwatiyya Shaykhs and by sending khalifs to surroundings especially by the endeavour of Hazrat Yahya-i Shirvani achieved its goal and Khalwatiyya Order was divided into four main branches- Rushaniyya, Jamaliyya, Asaliyya and Bahshiyya- which were mentioned above and by the derivation of many other branches whose number reached up to forty . Khalwatiyya Order worked as a factory.
The silsila of Khalwatiyya after Ash Shaykh Pir Abu Abdullah Sirajuddin Umarul Khalwati is as follows;
22. Ash Shaykh ahi Amram Khalwati
23. Ash Shaykh Hadji Izzaddin Khalwati
24. Ash Shaykh Sadraddin Hitawi
25. Pir-i Sani ash Shaykh Yahya-yi Shirwani
26. Ash Shaykh Pir Muhammad Arzinjani
27. Ash Shaykh Jamal al-Khalwati
27.1 Ash Shaykh Zaynuddin Yusuf Sunbul Sinan ( Sunbuliyya)
27.2 Ash Shaykh Pir Shabani Wali ( Shabaniyya)
27.3 Ash Shaykh Ahmad bin Ali al Assali ( Assaliyya)
27.4 Ash Shaykh Muhammad bin Muhammad al Bahshi ( Bahshiyya)
28. Ash Shaykh Hayraddin-i Toqadi
29. Ash Shaykh Pir Hazrat Shabani Wali
Jamaliyya branch, which derives its name from Jamal Khalwati, has the highest number of sub-branches in Khalwatiyya. At first this branch is divided into four sub-branches:
1- Sunbuliyya: It was founded by Ash Shaykh Hazrat Zaynuddin Yusuf Sunbul Sinan.
2- Shabaniyya: It was founded by Ash Shaykh Pir Shaban-i Wali who passed away in Qastamoni in 1568.
3- Asaliyya: It was founded by Hazrat Ahmad bin Ali al Assali who passed away in 1638.
4- Bahshiyya: It was founded by Hazrat Muhammad bin Muhammad al Bahshi who passed away in 1689.
Within these four branches Sunbuliyya, Assaliyya and Bahshiyya remained the same. However Shabaniyya developed and spread and divided into sub-branches.